Japanese Colonial Era

Lukang Longshan Temple (鹿港龍山寺)

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When planning a trip to Taiwan, one of the stops that is always high on the list of places to visit is Taipei’s historic Longshan Temple - and for good reason - the bustling temple in the city’s historic Wanhua District (萬華區) offers tourists a first-hand experience with the vibrancy of Taiwanese religion, culture and the traditional architecture that is considered ‘exotic’ by a lot of foreign visitors.

What though do those tourists who are able to invest a bit more time exploring Taiwan do?

Well, they get out of Taipei and head south - Then they visit the ‘other’ Longshan Temple.

Yes, there is more than one Longshan Temple. (There are a handful of them actually)

Taipei’s Longshan Temple tends to be the busiest of the lot, but that is really only because it is conveniently located within the capital and is easily accessible thanks to the amazing MRT system. Don’t get me wrong, it is an amazing place to visit - I’ve been there a hundred times and I’ll probably go a hundred more times.

But, (yes, there is a but) Taiwan’s first “Longshan Temple”, the most historic of the group, not only stands out as one of the most attractive of the bunch - it is also regarded as one of the most beautiful temples in the whole of Taiwan as well as one of the best remaining examples of a building constructed during the Qing dynasty with traditional Fujian-style architecture.

Located in the historic village of Lukang (鹿港), the temple is just one of the many amazing destinations the small coastal village has to offer. Needless to say, if you haven’t heard of Lukang, you really should take some time to check it out. What might seem a small village in the middle of no where is actually an action packed day trip with some of the coolest historic sites you’re going to see in Taiwan. This is why it has become such a popular destination for both domestic and foreign tourists alike. Lukang is a village that has been frozen in time and provides visitors with an amazing snapshot of what the Taiwan of olde was like.

Longshan Temples of Taiwan

The Longshan Temples of Taiwan have a history that is directly related to the early migration of Hokkien Chinese settlers from China’s Fujian Province (福建省). Starting in the early 1600’s, due to the political instability of the Ming Dynasty (明朝), many people hailing from the Fujian and Guangdong (廣東省) areas made the decision to emigrate across the Taiwan strait and throughout various parts of South East Asia.

In Taiwan’s case, the Hokkien people sought to make a go of it in what was a very under-developed land bringing with them only their language, culture, cuisine and folk religion as well as what little possessions they could fit on the boat.

The original Longshan Temple, constructed during the Tang Dynasty (唐朝) somewhere between 618-619, received its name thanks to its location on “Longshan” (龍山) or Dragon Mountain in Anhai, Fujian.

The original, like every other ‘Longshan Temple’ that followed is dedicated to the Buddha of Compassion, whom in the Chinese Buddhist tradition takes the form of Guanyin (觀音菩薩), a female Buddha.

  • Non-Chinese Buddhists are likely more familiar with Tibet’s Buddha of Compassion who appears in human form as the Dalai Lama.

Here in Taiwan, the tradition that these temples would be dedicated to Guanyin has continued, but as the centuries have passed they started to accommodate Taoist and local folk-religion deities as well - many of whom also happen to hail from the Fujian region.

Even though you can now find several deities housed within Taiwan’s various Longshan Temples, the fact remains that essence of religious worship that takes place within is rooted in Chinese Zen Buddhist tradition.

Something that I can’t underscore enough about the religious experience in Taiwan compared to the west is that temples here have the ability to house gods from what are considered to be ‘different’ religions yet there are never any problems that arise from this. The religious experience here is one of tolerance and should certainly act as a model for those around the world who would use their beliefs to cause harm to others.

Today there are five temples in Taiwan with histories that date between 160 - 370 years which were all constructed during the Qing dynasty.

Lugang Longshan Temple (鹿港龍山寺) - 1647

Tainan Longshan Temple (台南龍山寺) - 1715

Monga Longshan Temple (艋舺龍山寺) - 1738

Fengshan Longshan Temple (鳳山龍山寺) - 1765

Tamsui Longshan Temple (淡水龍山寺) - 1858

Daxi Longshan Temple (大溪龍山寺) - 1868

Each of the temples differs in its design, but they all share a similar history and purpose making the Longshan Temple’s of Taiwan an important place of worship and of course, historical value.

Lukang Longshan Temple (鹿港龍山寺)

The oldest of all of the Longshan Temple’s in Taiwan is located in Changhua County’s Lukang Village - With a history that is said to date back to 1647. and is considered to be one of the most historic in all of Taiwan.

Something I’ve learned over the past few years though is to take some of these historical “facts” with a grain of salt.

Does the Lukang Longshan Temple in fact date back to 1647? Technically yes and technically no.

The history of a ‘Longshan Temple’ in the area most certainly dates back to the mid-1600s. However that history doesn’t necessarily relate to building that we see today. The original was actually a much smaller shrine, in another part of the village and was constructed solely to house a statue of Guanyin that was brought to Taiwan from the original Longshan Temple.

The temple we see today moved to its current location in 1786 and since then has been expanded upon, renovated and restored on several different occasions with reconstructions in the 1800s forming the basis of the structure that we continue to enjoy today.

So, while it may not be as old as advertised, Its still quite old.

History

To make things a bit clearer, I’ve gone ahead and translated some of the more important historical events over the temple’s long history:

  • 1647 - Immigrants from Quanzhou (泉州) bring a statue of Guanyin from the original Longshan Temple in Fujian on the voyage across the Taiwan strait and set up a small shrine on what is now a small alley near Dayou Street (大有街).

  • 1786 - The original shrine moves to its current location across town on a larger plot of land.

  • 1798 - After only a decade the newly constructed temple turns out to be far too popular and needs to be expanded to accommodate the amount of people who visit. The expansion sets in stone (literally) the layout for the temple which confines the complex to the 5,300 square meter plot of land that we still see today.

  • 1897 - Two years after the Japanese Colonial Era began, the Japanese authorities rented out the rear hall of the temple to create a Pure Land Buddhist (浄土仏教) shrine to accommodate Japanese Buddhists who lived in the area. Part of the temple is also used as a school for teaching the Japanese language to the local people.

  • 1904 - The temple joins a network of Pure Land Temples (淨土真宗本願寺派 / じょうどしんしゅうほんがんじは) and the Guanyin statue is relocated to the Rear Hall and replaced with a statue of Amida (阿彌陀佛) in the Main Hall.

  • 1921 - In what would become one of the worst tragedies in Lukang history, a fire completely destroys the Rear Hall of the temple taking with it the historic statue of Guanyin.

  • 1938 - Reconstruction of the Rear Hall is completed.

  • 1961 - Sixteen years after the Japanese Colonial Era ended, it is decided that the Main Shrine of the temple would revert back to Guanyin and the statue of Amida would be moved to the Rear Hall.

  • 1983 - The temple is awarded the designation as a ‘First Class National Historic Site’ (國家第一級古蹟) making it a protected historic building.

  • 1999 - On September 21st the powerful Jiji Earthquake (集集大地震) rocked Taiwan and created mass destruction all over the country. The temple was badly damaged as a result of the quake, so another massive reconstruction project is started to repair the damage.

  • 2002 - Reconstruction project is completed.

  • 2005 - Josh visits for the first time and falls in love (with the temple).

Design

When most people talk about the Lukang Longshan Temple, they only briefly mention the temple’s long history - Numbers are thrown out and people nod their heads and think “cool”, because when it comes to this temple, its not its age that really matters.

This temple is often described as one of the best remaining examples of Southern Fujian Qing-style architecture remaining in Taiwan. Does the average tourist really understand what any of that means though?

When you walk around the temple you don’t really have to really understand the complexities of historic architecture to realize that this temple is a masterpiece of design.

Interestingly though, whenever you search for “Southern Fujian Architecture” or “Hokkien Architecture” (閩南風格) most of the search results will feature a photo of the temple as the prime example of the characteristics of this style of architecture.

Hokkien-style architecture shares many similarities with other styles of Chinese architecture but there are of course several different ways that make buildings constructed in this style distinctive from others. First, the material used to construct this style of building is usually a mixture of red brick and wood. For most commoners in China, the usage of the colour red was frowned upon because “red” was typically reserved for imperial buildings. The Hokkien people it seems didn’t really care much about that though.

Swallowtail Roof

Another important characteristic is the “Swallowtail Roof” (燕尾脊) which refers to having a roof with an ‘upward-curving ridge’ shaped like the tail of a swallow. This design tends to vary in terms of the degree of the curve as well the number of layers on the roof but is something quite common throughout Taiwan.

Finally, to compliment the swallowtail roof designs, the Hokkien style often includes colourful porcelain carvings (剪瓷雕) which became common not only on the roofs of temples but also homes and ancestral shrines as well. The porcelain designs range from plants and animals to mystical creatures from Chinese mythology including dragons and phoenixes.

As one of the most well-preserved temples of its kind, the Lukang Longshan Temple combines all three of these architectural designs with beautiful red brick, swallowtail designed roofs on the main halls and gates and expertly crafted porcelain figures decorating the buildings.

The temple also follows the traditional ‘Three-Hall-Two-Courtyard’ design (三進二院) which refers to the three halls - The Front Hall (五門殿), Main Hall (正殿) and the Rear Hall (後殿) which are separated by the front courtyard and the rear courtyard and surrounded by passage ways on the perimeter of the building.

If you take a look at the diagram above, you may discover that the temple is constructed to resemble the Chinese Character “日“ which translates into English as either “sun” or “day”.

You could easily spend hours of your day enjoying the minutia and intricate designs of this temple, so I hope the following descriptions of each section helps to point out some of the things that you should pay close attention to when you visit.

Even if you can’t read Mandarin, I recommend checking out this site to see some historic photos of the temple as well as some sketches that beautifully illustrate the layout of the temple.

The Main Gate (山門)

The Main Gate of the temple, often referred to as the “Mountain Gate” (山門) is one of the most impressive you’ll see in Taiwan. The courtyard in front of the gate is decorated with red lanterns that lead up to the beautifully constructed wooden gate. Between the layers on the roof is a plaque that reads “Longshan Temple” (龍山寺). There are also red lanterns hanging off of the layer below that read “Lukang Longshan Temple” (鹿港龍山寺).

Not only is the gate held up on the front end by wooden pillars, it is also connected to a brick base that forms the entrance and also part of the wall that surrounds the entire perimeter of the temple.

The Main Gate is not only impressive from a distance but when you get close enough you can easily see the mastery it took to design such an intricate roof with the pillars holding the gate up.

Before entering the temple make sure to take some time to stand under the gate looking up at the beautiful work and all of its intricate pieces.

Paper Incinerator (惜字塔)

In the front square before you enter the temple quietly sits a relic of the past that isn’t widely talked about in English-language articles. What looks like a simple brick tower is actually a paper-burning incinerator that is of cultural and historic significance.

To describe it simply, Taiwan is a very humid place which makes it easy for things (like paper) to rot or become moldy. Before we had dehumidifiers and air conditioners people had little recourse to preserve the books they had, so as a show of respect for the written word, when people finished reading something they wouldn’t just leave it around. Likewise, throwing books in the garbage was simply not an option, so they took the book to an incinerator like this one and burnt it so that the words would live on in eternity.

I know, it sounds weird, right?

This practice was especially common with the Hakka people of Taiwan who constructed these special furnaces in the areas where they lived. As time went on, these towers became more and more unnecessary, so in many places around the country they’ve unfortunately been torn down.

In recent years however there has been a push to preserve them as they are of cultural and historical significance. In Taoyuan for example two of these incinerators, which are known as “Miracle Terraces” (聖蹟亭) have been restored and are open to the public as cultural shrines.

The paper incinerator at the temple looks like it hasn’t been in use for decades and sits quietly in a corner, still though, most people, including locals walk by it and don’t pay it any attention despite its historic significance.

Front Hall (五門殿)

The “Front Hall” is a actually a very simplistic term for what the main entrance of the temple actually is; In Chinese, the name translates directly as the “Five Door Hall” and is sometimes referred to as the “Five Door Portal”. No matter how you like to translate the name of the Front Hall, it consists of five doors with the three in the middle separated by four stone pillars.

Directly in front of the centre-most door is an incense cauldron with beautifully carved calligraphy on it.

On either side of the cauldron are stone pillars that have a dragon encircling the column.

On the walls you’ll find traditionally carved windows that are made out of wood and allow for the natural flow of air through the gate. On the windows you’ll find various designs including dragons, tigers, phoenixes which together symbolize prosperity and longevity.

On the interior it is important to pay attention to the ‘Door Gods’ (門神) that are painted on the doors.

When the doors are open they will face the inside of the temple and when the temple closes at night they’ll face the exterior. The ‘Door Gods’ have somewhat faded over the years but this style of artwork has started to become something of a lost art in Taiwan, so its great that we can still enjoy these.

The Door Gods on the main door in the centre represent Skanda (韋馱), the guardian of Buddhist Monasteries as well as Sangharama (伽藍), the Buddhist name for popular historical figure known as Guan Yu who is highly regarded for his ability to offer spiritual protection and grant blessings. The remaining four doors each have one of the Four Heavenly Kings (四大天王) who bestow wealth, success, peace and protection.

Theatre Pavilion (戲殿)

The ‘Theatre Pavilion’ is traditionally an area where temple performances would take place.

Temples constructed in Taiwan within the last century have (for the most part) constructed their performance stages in a separate area from the rest of the temple, usually outside of the main gates. This has allowed for larger, more mobile stages and more space for the audience, while reducing the amount of noise within the temple.

Truthfully, in all my years of temple hopping I can only count a handful of times where the Theatre Pavilion was actually constructed in such a central location in the temple.

Once you enter the Front Hall, the Theatre Pavilion is a large flat space with a spider-web caisson decorating the ceiling above it.

Few performances are held in this area anymore but the open space it provides in addition to the caisson above make it an especially grand spot that you won’t find at many other temples in Taiwan.

The Caisson (八卦藻井)

While doing research for this post I learned a new word - I’ve never actually known the English word for these so-called ‘spider web ceilings’ but whenever I see them I’m absolutely amazed by them.

In the case of this temple, the “caisson” is jaw-droppingly beautiful. There are so many adjectives that could be used to describe how beautiful the craftsmanship on this ceiling is but I’m at a loss for words - and if you have the chance to see it, I’m sure you will be too.

Known as the most beautiful “caisson” (藻井) in all of Taiwan, the “Ba-Gua ceiling” as I’d prefer to call it is an architectural masterpiece found in many East Asian temples and palaces. The reason I call it a “Ba-Gua” ceiling is because it is octagonal, a shape that has particular significance in local folk religion and culture.

Note: Bagua (八卦) refers to eight symbols in Taoism that represent the fundamental principles of reality and are interrelated with each other. At the centre of the Bagua is the Yin-Yang symbol. (Wikipedia link)

This particular caisson was constricted during the temple’s 1831 reconstruction and there are claims that it is one of the oldest of its kind in Taiwan.

A caisson is basically a sunken layered panel in a ceiling that raises above the rest of the ceiling almost as if there were a dome above it. The layers of the caisson are often beautifully decorated and with a design at the centre - in this case a beautifully painted dragon.

The most amazing thing about these caisson’s is that they are designed using expertly measured interlocking pieces that go together in a way that mean that neither beams nor nails are used to keep them together.

They just lock together to form a six-layer deep spider-web of beauty.

The Ba-Gua ceiling here commands respect and has become one of the most defining features of the temple. If you are visiting, I can’t stress it enough that you need to spend a few minutes with your head in the air appreciating the beauty and genius of this architectural masterpiece.

Worship Hall (拜殿)

To make a bit of a comparison, the Worship Hall at the temple is similar to something like the front patio of a house - It is more or less just a large covered platform that allows people to perform religious rituals without actually entering the Main Hall.

On the left and right side of the Worship hall sit a couple of century-year old trees that offer a bit of shade in front of the hall. Likewise each side of the hall has a station that allows people to light candles and incense for their prayers. In the centre there is another large incense cauldron with beautiful calligraphy carved on it. Behind the cauldron sits a large table where people can place offerings and is where you’ll often find beautiful floral decorations donated by visitors to the temple.

Of note when it comes to the design are the two stone dragon columns on either side of the incense cauldron - The columns which date back to 1852 are each carved with a dragon encircling the pillar. The dragons each have a pearl in their mouth and one in their foot while showing their fangs. The way the dragons encircle the columns make them is said to make them almost lifelike as they seem like they’re constantly in motion.

On the back of each column you’ll find the same four creatures featured in the windows of the Front Hall - A Phoenix (鳳), Qilin (麟), Crane (鶴) and Turtle (龜) - known as the ‘four spirit animals’ and together represent an idiom in Chinese (鳳毛麟趾、鶴算龜齡) that is really hard to translate to English but more or less refers to the rarity of the animals, how precious they are and the longevity of their lifespans (稀奇珍貴、祥瑞長壽) - certainly a metaphor for the temple.

Also of note are the two octagonal passageways on either side of the Worship Hall that lead to the the rear area of the temple. The passageways have become quite popular with photographers, especially wedding photographers who you might run into while touring the temple.

If you visit the temple make sure to take a few photos from the two doors as they’ve become quite iconic.

Main Hall (正殿)

To start, the roof of the Main Hall is actually quite simple; Following the same design as the other sections, the roof is a double-layered swallowtail design. On each of the tips you’ll find a dragon that is facing a pagoda in the middle.

Interestingly the Door Gods at the Main Hall mirror those of the Front Hall and consisting of the Four Heavenly Kings (四天大王), Skanda (韋馱), and Sangharama (伽藍). This time however they are painted a bit differently representing different aspects of their character. In this case they appear more ‘compassionate’ and ‘scholarly’ while they appear a bit more threatening on the outside.

Note: The scary, threatening Door Gods are considered to be “martial” (武) representations while the compassionate representations are considered ‘scholarly’ (文).

The interior of the hall is really where the design of the temple really shines - It is dark, not very well-lit and constructed with a network of stained wooden beams that hold everything up.

In the centre of the building, the ceiling rises almost a level higher than at the entrance - On the sides there are windows on both the east and west ends that allow for natural light to flow into the building offering a bit more light on the inside.

On the far right of the shrine room you’ll find statues dedicated to the Eighteen Arhats (十八羅漢), the original disciples of the Buddha. Next to them you’ll see desks nearby where there are attendants watching over the building and are there to answer any questions you may have.

The main shrine consists of several different statues of Guanyin, the Buddha of Compassion.

The largest statue is a replacement for the original that was brought to Taiwan in the 1600s. Accompanying the large image of Guanyin are several others which were carved out of wood or molded out of bronze.

Once again, to the direct left of the main shrine you’ll find martial representations of Sangharama (伽藍) and to the right Skanda (韋馱) whose purpose is to act as spiritual bodyguards for Guanyin.

You’ll also find a shrine dedicated to the Goddess of Childbirth (註生娘娘), The Monkey King (齊天大聖) and the Dragon King (龍王).

Rear Hall (後殿)

The Rear Hall of the temple is considered the youngest part of the entire complex due to the fact that it had to be rebuilt after a fire destroyed the original hall.

The new version of the hall dates back to 1938, during the Japanese Colonial Era and its design us a reflection of the era with a mixture of both Japanese and Chinese styles.

The exterior of the hall is a simple one that follows the Hokkien style of design making using of the swallowtail roof. The doors and the interior however are constructed completely of Taiwanese Cyprus and the Stone Dragon Columns are more ‘Japanese’ in design than the columns in the previous two halls.

To the sides of the Rear Hall you’ll find two round doors which used to be the dorm rooms for the temple abbot. Today the room to the right has been converted into a kitchen and the room on the left is partly used for storage and also allows guests to go to visit the back garden or the public restrooms.

On the doors of the Rear Hall you will find General’s Heng and Ha (哼哈二軍) who are mythical generals that date back to the Shang Dynasty (商朝). They’re mostly known today in their capacity as ‘Door Gods’ at Buddhist Temples.

Like the exterior, the interior of the hall is very simple in design with shrines dedicated to various Buddhist figures. In front of the shrines there is ample floor space that allows for the nuns who hold daily prayer services to take a seat on the floor.

In fact, the main reason why I don’t have many photos of the interior of the Rear Hall is due to one of the daily prayer services taking place at the same time of my visit. Even though I missed out on getting better photos of shrines inside, I did enjoy taking photos of the ladies who were busy chanting.

As mentioned above, the Rear Hall is home to several Buddhist figures which include Amida (阿彌陀佛), Sakyamuni Buddha (释迦牟尼) and the Medicine Buddha (藥師佛) - known as the ‘Three Treasures’ (三寶佛).

You’ll also find statues of Manjusri (文殊菩薩), Puxian (普賢菩薩), Jizo (地藏王菩薩), the Wind God (風神), Rain God (雨神), the God of Literature (文昌帝君) and the Zhenwu Emperor (玄天上帝).

Last but not least in the courtyard in front of the Rear Hall you’ll find an old well known as the “Dragon Stream Well” (龍泉井) which used to be where the people who lived and worked at the temple got their water. Today the well is closed up but you can still see that there is water inside.

Getting There

 

Lukang isn’t particularly a large town and is easily walkable - If you arrive in a car or on a scooter the best thing you can do is just find a parking space walk around to better explore the magic of the historic village.

Home to several historic temples, buildings, businesses as well as an old street were you can sample local delicacies, there is certainly more than enough to do while you’re in Lukang and if you plan your day well enough you should be able to explore for an entire day (or more if you have the time).

If you get tired of walking there are bicycle rental vendors all over the city - I’d recommend saving yourself some money and getting a Youbike instead. 

Lukang doesn’t have its own railway station, so if you want to visit using public transportation you have a few different options:

  1. Take a Ubus direct to the village from Taipei Bus Station ($350NT).

  2. Take a bus from Taichung - You can choose either Bus #6936 from Taichung HSR Station or Bus #6933 from Taichung Railway Station.

  3. Take a bus from Changhua - From the Changhua Railway Station you’ll find buses that frequently travel back and forth. (Buses: 6900, 6901, 6902, 6909, 6933, 6934, 6936 - Website)

  4. Take a scenic ride with a YouBike from Changhua Train Station on the six kilometre ride to Lukang - There are stations all over Changhua City as well as in Lukang to get a bike. Make sure to download the YouBike App so you’ll know where to get a bike.

Whatever method you choose to get to the village, I can’t stress it enough that once you’re there you should walk around and enjoy the quiet ambience of one of Taiwan’s most historic villages. You’ll easily be able to walk through the village and see all of the most important sites without needing a car or a scooter.

The Lukang Longshan Temple is located at “No. 81, Jinmen Street” (彰化縣鹿港鎮金門街81號) and is open to the public and to tourists everyday from 6:00am - 9:00pm.

Okay, so this post turned out much longer than I actually expected - And I really only scratched the surface when it comes to the history and design - You could write a thesis about this place and you still wouldn’t come close to describing all of the fine details. 

I suppose it is arguable whether or not Lukang‘s Longshan Temple is factually one of the “oldest” temples in Taiwan, it is however the oldest “Longshan Temple” in the country and when it comes to its beauty, it really does stand out as one of the most stunning places of worship in Taiwan. Its age and adherence to traditional architectural styles place it very high on the list of the most important historic temples to visit and I can assure you that if you do have the chance to go, you’ll certainly be glad you did.

Visiting Taipei’s Longshan Temple is obviously much more convenient for the majority of people who travel to Taiwan, but if you’re one of those people who takes a little bit of extra time to explore the country, a visit to Lukang and the many historic temples within the small village should be high on your list of things to do.


Yilan Shinto Shrine (宜蘭神社遺址)

I read an interesting quote from a Taiwanese historian recently that explained that when the Japanese came to Taiwan they developed the island and built things that were meant to last.

They did this because they never actually planned to leave.

The historian continued to explain that when the Colonial Era ended and the Chinese Nationalists fled to Taiwan, they constructed buildings with the mindset that they would only be temporary as were only here for a short time before going back to China.

This is why you can still find buildings and infrastructure constructed during the Japanese Colonial Era that was beautifully designed and still standing after all these years. Whereas a lot of the buildings constructed after they left are constantly falling apart.

The Japanese mindset when it came to Taiwan was that the island would become a ‘model colony’ and the colonial government would do their best to develop the island’s infrastructure, modernize its economy and educate the local people who lived here.

This isn’t to say that the Japanese weren’t guilty of atrocities - they certainly committed their fair share and in many countries across Asia, the history of Japanese Imperialism is one that conjures up a lot of bad memories for those who experienced it.

When the Japanese were forced to leave Taiwan, they left the island in a considerably better situation than before they arrived which is part of the reason why, despite the negatives brought by colonial rule, locals often have a positive outlook on their half-century under Japanese rule.

In China, the experience with Japanese Imperialism was completely different, so when the Republic of China took control of Taiwan (and later fled here in the early 1950s) they could hardly understand how the local population could look so favourably upon the Japanese.

The combination of the experiences the Chinese had with Japan during the Second World War and the Taiwanese affinity for Japanese rule created a rift between the two and is one of the contributing factors as to why so many unfortunate atrocities took place during the ensuing four decades, known as Taiwan’s “White Terror” (白色恐怖) period.

During that forty year period, which we are still learning about today, the Chinese Nationalists took it upon themselves to forcefully promote Chinese culture on the locals while subjugating the use of local indigenous languages as well as Taiwanese, Hakka and Japanese.

They also did their best to rid Taiwan of any evidence of Japanese culture that couldn’t be ‘repurposed’ for their own usage. This meant that almost all of the over 200 Shinto Shrines that were constructed throughout the country would ultimately disappear over this period.

Now that Taiwan has entered a new era of peace and stability, it has become important for society to take an honest look at and learn from the crimes of the past. This includes not only seeking transitional justice for those who were persecuted or murdered, but also making efforts to revive and preserve the languages of the local peoples, and the restoration of important cultural and historic places of interest.

One of the areas where the government has put a considerable amount of effort in the past few years is the restoration and preservation of buildings that were constructed during the Japanese Colonial Era. These efforts have focused on the restoration of the many Martial Arts Halls, Shinto Shrines, train stations and former civil servant dormitories throughout the country.

All over the country you can see restoration projects taking place transforming many of these historic structures into popular tourist destinations.

Of the over two hundred Shinto Shrines that once existed in Taiwan during the Colonial Era, very few actually remain in existence today. The government has made an effort to rebuild and restore some of those that remain but unfortunately only the Taoyuan and Tongxiao Shrines are the largest that are still around.

Interestingly, the former Yilan Shinto Shrine, which like many other large shrines was more or less destroyed decades ago, has experienced a bit of a revival in recent years - but not for being rebuilt like some of the others.

The shine, like several of the other large Shinto Shrines in Taiwan (including the two mentioned above) was converted into a “Martyrs’ Shrine”, a place dedicated to paying respect to the fallen soldiers of the Republic of China Armed Forces.

What makes this one interesting though is the way the local government has gone about restoring the shrine. Instead of rebuilding it, they have instead converted the site into a makeshift memorial with an art display that tells the story of its destruction while keeping the Martyrs Shrine intact.

The Yilan Shinto Shrine (宜蘭神社)

The Yilan Shinto Shine or “Giran Jinjya” (ぎらんじんじゃ) was classified as a prefectural shrine and the largest of the over a dozen shrines constructed in the Yilan area during the colonial period.

The shrine, which was one of the first constructed in Taiwan was originally constructed in 1906 during the latter years of the Meiji Era (明治), in what is today Zhongshan Park (中山公園) near the Yilan Train Station.

A little more than a decade later though it was decided that the shrine would have to be relocated outside of Yilan City to an area with more space. The shrine also had serious structural issues which made it unrepairable due to the amount of typhoons and earthquakes on the east coast.

In 1918 (大正7年), the new and improved Yilan Shinto Shrine opened to the public just outside of the main city on a small mountain. The location that was chosen for the shrine was an optimal one that allowed for the new shrine to be constructed in a traditional fashion with a ground level walking path, a set of stone stairs that led up the mountain, a Haiden (拜殿) and a Honden (本殿) which were both constructed at different elevations.

From historical records and photos I can tell you that the Yilan Shinto Shrine was complete with a Torii (鳥居), Visiting Path (参道), Purification Fountain (手水舎), Stone Lanterns (燈籠), Bronze Horse (銅馬), Komainu (狛犬), Haiden (拜殿) and Honden (本殿).

Unfortunately I haven’t seen much evidence of the shrine including a ‘Shamusho’ Administrative Office (社務所), although for a shrine of its size, I’m sure there was one somewhere - Its just not showing up in photos or records.

What is quite apparent from the few photos that are available though is that the Yilan Shinto Shrine was indeed one of the most beautiful in Taiwan and for the few decades of its existence was a popular place to visit.

The shrine, much like many of the others that would later be constructed around Taiwan was primarily dedicated to Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa (能久親王), the ‘Three Deities of Cultivation’ (開拓三神) and the Goddess Amaterasu (天照皇大神).

It is significant to note that Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa (北白川宮能久親王) was a distant relative of the Japanese emperor and was the first royal who had the unfortunate luck of dying outside of Japan. The details of his death are somewhat disputed but he either died as a result of contracting Malaria or by being shot by Taiwanese Guerrillas.

Nevertheless he died just outside of Tainan during the 1894-1895 invasion of Taiwan and was quickly elevated to the status of a ‘kami’ with shrines dedicated in his honour throughout Taiwan - as well as in Japan’s Yasukuni Shrine.

Another commonality among many of Taiwan’s Shinto Shrines were the worship of the ‘Three Deities of Cultivation’ (かいたくさんじん / 開拓三神) which consisted of three gods known for their skills with regard to nation-building, farming, business and medicine. Similar to the Chinese Earth God (土地公 / 福德正神) who is enshrined in probably more than a thousand different locations around Taiwan.

Unfortunately all that remains of the Yilan Shinto Shrine today are shattered pieces of the past.

There are however a few pieces that have been left intact. The ‘Visiting Path’ (参道) still features prominently on the park. Likewise the steps that bring visitors up the mountain are still there with the original Komainu (狛犬) lion-dogs guarding them.

The original Haiden (拜殿), Honden (本殿), Torii (鳥居) and Stone Lanterns (燈籠) however have all been demolished and are part of the display in front of the original Bronze Horse (銅馬), which is an interesting case and deserves a bit of explanation.

Bronze Horse

Typically the horses, known as ‘God Horses’ (神馬) sit in front of a shinto shrine and are considered to be the personal mount of the gods enshrined within the temple. Known as “Shinme” (しんめ), the horses are often beautifully molded from bronze and designed in a way that makes them look powerful and majestic while also in a perpetual sense of motion.

In most cases the horse are decorated with a round symbol on their belly that usually depicts the Chrysanthemum Seal of the Japanese royal family, known as the Kikukamonshō (菊花紋章).

When the Chinese Nationalists took control of Taiwan they ended up destroying most of the country’s Shinto Shrines, but for some bizarre reasons left some of the bronze horses standing.

They did however make sure to vandalize the Chrysanthemum Sea, something I’ve already mentioned when I blogged about the former Taichung Shinto Shrine. (Click the link to see photos of the horses)

The Bronze Horse at the Yilan Shinto Shrine however stands apart from many of the others that remain in existence today due to the fact that the emblem on its belly wasn’t vandalized. Amazingly it was left alone.

The reason for this is quite simple - The emblem on the horse’s belly isn’t the ‘Chrysanthemum Seal’ but the official seal that the Japanese colonial government used for “Taiwan”, which is a symbol that remains popular in Taiwan today, especially with independence activists. (See a mock up of a proposed Taiwan flag below)

Even though most of the Shinto Shrine is non-existent today, I highly recommend checking out the Bronze Horse as its continued existence is actually quite surprising. Its also cool to check out the interesting art display near the horses which depict the lost pieces of the shrine in their smashed state.

Yilan Martyrs’ Shrine (宜蘭忠烈祠)

When Japan surrendered to the allies at the end of the war, control of Taiwan was ambiguously handed over to Chiang Kai-Shek (蔣中正) and the Republic of China. A few years later though, they would find themselves on the losing side of the Chinese Civil War and were forced to retreat to Taiwan to regroup their forces.

The influx of a few million refugees created food and housing shortages all over Taiwan and the local people were the ones who had to endure the majority of those hardships. Likewise, the resentment toward anything “Japanese” meant that any buildings of cultural or religious significance that wasn’t helping to solve the housing crisis was demolished or vandalized.

In the early 1950s the Yilan Shinto Shrine was demolished and replaced with a Martyrs’ Shrine (忠烈祠), dedicated to the fallen members of the Republic of China Armed Forces.

The small one-room building was constructed to appear like a traditional temple and on the inside you could find a Spirit Tablet (神位), representing the fallen members of the Armed Forces.

The ironic thing about ‘Martyrs Shrines’ in Taiwan is that the people memorialized within were all born in China and fought in wars that really had nothing to do with Taiwan.

If locals want to pay respect to family members who gave their life serving in the military during the Second World War, they’d have to travel to the Yasukuni Shrine (靖國神社) in Tokyo.

After the shinto shrine was demolished, the ground level area where the ‘Visiting Path’ once existed was converted into a makeshift Military Village (眷村) known as Xingguo New Village (興國新村) where members of the airforce stationed nearby took up residence.

Military Villages Links: Mazu New Village | Rainbow Village  

After a few decades people slowly started realizing that the dream of ‘Retaking the Mainland’ from the Communists was never going to happen. So, with the housing crisis solved and the economy booming, people started to slowly leave the villages for more modern and permanent arrangements.

The local government decided in the early 1990s that Xingguo Village would be demolished and converted into a park, paying homage in part to its history as a Shinto Shrine with the ‘visiting path’ faithfully restored and the shattered pieces of the shrine that remained put on display.

In addition the east and west wings of the Martyrs Shrine would be converted into an exhibition space which would display historic photos of the shrine and have diagrams of what it looked like before being destroyed.

I suppose even though the Shinto Shrine is long gone, its memory is being recognized in a responsible way and people are able to learn about an important piece of this nations history.

Getting There

 

The Yilan Martyrs Shrine is located within the Yuanshan Park (員山公園) in Yilan County’s Yuanshan Township (員山鄉), just outside of Yilan City.

If you have your own means of transportation the park is located a short distance from the Number 7 Highway (北橫公路) on Yuanshan Road Section One (員山路一段) and a quick turn onto Fuxing Road (復興路).

The park has ample parking space for your vehicle, so you probably won’t have to park too far away, unless of course there is a public event going on.

If you are relying on public transportation, simply take Bus #753 from the Yilan Bus Station (宜蘭轉運站) located to the rear of Yilan Train Station (宜蘭車站) and it will drop you off at the park.

Yilan isn’t the most accessible place when it comes to public transportation and they don’t have YouBike service, so if you can’t catch the bus but still want to visit you may want to consider taking a taxi from the train station. Its not that far, so it won’t cost you very much.

It is a historical injustice and truly unfortunate that so few of the over two hundred Shinto Shrines that were constructed here still exist today. The few that remain thus serve as an important link to part of Taiwan’s colonial history. The recent preservation efforts to restore some of the culturally-significant colonial-era structures are important steps in offering the people of Taiwan a link to their past - and their continued existence should serve as a reminder for the future citizens of this country of everything this nation has had to experience to get to where it is today.

Even though the Yilan Shinto Shrine has been all but destroyed, it has left quite the imprint on Yuanshan Park. The local government has done as well as can be expected to preserve the few remaining pieces of the shrine and offer them as a bit of a memorial of the past.

While the Martyrs Shrine itself is not really that interesting, the remnants of the former Shinto Shrine that are left in the park are enough of a reason to visit. If you find yourself in the Yilan area and are looking to learn a bit about the area’s history, this is definitely one place where you should think about making a stop. It won’t take you very long to see it all and the park is quite enjoyable with lots of activities happening on weekends.